You are here

HHC releases results to Oahu sand tests

  • 2688 Kilihau Street B
  • Honolulu
  • Hawaii, 96819
  • Phone: 808-836-5558
  • Fax: 808-836-5509
  • PO BOX 75457
  • Kapolei
  • Hawaii, 96707

Case #: 1

Received: 04-19-06 15:45, 16:30

Tested: 04-19-06 17:30

Completed: 04-20-06 18:00

Samples: Sand

Lab # Sample ID Enterococcus CFU/ 100 g Clostridium perfringens CFU/ 100 g
1. Sand- Makaha Beach
04-19-06 13:30
< 2 < 2
2. Sand- Waikiki Beach, Hilton Haw’n Village
04-19-06 13:50
< 2 < 2
3. Sand- Waikiki Beach, near Duke’s
04-19-06 14:20
< 2 46
4. Sand- Ala Moana Beach, Ewa Concession
04-19-06 12:47
2 16
5. Sand- Kailua Beach, near boat ramp
04-19-06 15:3
24 60

Sand Extraction: The method for washing the sand was obtained from the Environmental Microbiology Department of the Hawaii State Department of Health, who advised that this procedure had previously been obtained from the University of Hawaii. 90 grams of sand was added to the 90 ml dilution blank; shaken for 10 seconds, allowed to settle and the liquid then decanted into a sterile container. The procedure was repeated, adding 90 ml of dilution water, shaking for 10 seconds, settling and decanting into the first 90 mls. The total 180 ml of sand extract water was then analyzed.

Clostridium perfringens- Bissen and Cabelli, Appl. Environ. Micro. 37:55-66, 1979, MDL 2 CFU/ 100 g
Enterococcus- EPA Method 1600, MDL 2 CFU/ 100 g

CFU: Colony Forming Unit MDL: Minimum Detection Level

Clostridium perfringens:
C. perfringens is defined as an obligate anaerobic gram- positive, spore forming, non-motile bacillus that ferments sucrose, ferments lactose with stormy gas production, but does not ferment cellobiose, and produces phospatese. C. perfringens also produces toxins which cause gas gangrene and gastroenteritis. C. perfringens produces a single oval subterminal spore less than 1 um in diameter during adverse conditions. Sporulation can also occur in the intestinal tract. Spores are notable resistant to heat, drying and chemical disinfectants which would be fatal to the vegetative form. This resistance to unfavorable conditions preserves the organisms for long periods of time. C. perfringens spores are present in large numbers in human and animal wastes and are resistant to wastewater treatment practices, extremes in temperature and environmental stress. They are an indicator of present fecal contamination as well as a conservative tracer of past fecal contamination.

Enterococci: (i.e. Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus faecium, Streptococcus avium, and their variants.) Streptococcacae family bacteria are spherical or ovoid cells in pairs or chains of varying length or in tetrads. They are non-motile or rarely motile. They do not form endospores, and are gram-positive. S. faecalis is found in the feces of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is occasionally found in urinary tract infections and subacute endocarditis. The presence of these species in water is evidence of excretal or fecal pollution of human or animal origin. If these organisms are present in the water, it is also possible for intestinal pathogens to be present since they also occur in feces.